Credits to Scotch Snaps - The Big Picture

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Recorded sources for cited extracts (in order of appearance)

'The Drunken Sailor'/'The Inverness Gathering'
Scots Guards Standard Settings of Pipe Music, Vol 1 (1954); London: Paterson
arr. perf. Philip Tagg (2011)

Coming Through The Rye (Scot. Trad./Burns). Sung by Katriona. Was YouTube LkLlpJAd_DU

'Farewell Aragog' from Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Soundtrack

March (Scot. Trad). Bruce MacGregor Highland Fiddle School

Cape Breton Strathspey (J A Rankin); perf. Q & Q Bachand

Strathspey (Scot. Trad.), perf. Farquhar McRae; unid. Folkways rec. c. 1960

Ho mo nighean donn nan gaibhre (Scot. Trad.); sung by Charlie Macleod

Tiocfaidh an Samhradh (Irish Trad.); sung by Gearóidín Bhreatnach; RTE Gaelic broadcast

Seán A Duír A' Ghleanna (Irish Trad.); Mick Moloney at SÄMUS, Göteborg; 1972-09-14. Private recording

The Road To The Isles (Scot. Trad.) sung by Andy Stewart

The Road To The Isles (Scot. Trad.) sung by Sir Harry Lauder (1926)

The Road To The Isles (Scot. Trad.) perf. 'TheJoksmaster'

Béla Bartók: Three Huganrian Folk Songs, #1; Gérard Serkoyan (v), Valéry Souder (pf)

Béla Bartók: 2nd mvt. Divertimento for String Orchestra Sz113 BB118 (1939)
Moscow Chamber Ensemble, Rudolf Barshai. London Treasury STS 15326 (1962).

'Randall Collins' (US Trad.) perf/v by Norman Blake.Home In Sulphur Springs. Rounder 0012 (1972).

Timeline montage by Philip Tagg (2011)

Alle Jahre Wieder, kommt das Christus Kind by Johann C. H. Rink (1770-1846)

Antonín Dvořák: New World Symphony (1893). Wien Philharmoniker, István Kertész.
Decca Weekend Classics 417 678-2 (1968)

'The Magnificent Seven' (theme) by Elmer Bernstein; I Magnifici 7. Liberty 3C 054-83185

'Cade's County' (theme) by Henry Mancini (1971); Golden Hour of Favourite TV Themes. Golden Hour GH 845 (1976).

Blazing Saddles (theme) sung by Frankie Lane (1974); Warner DVD (2004) WB 18959

'The Surrey With The Fringe On Top'; by Rodgers & Hammerstein from Oklahoma! (1955)

'The Buggy Ride' by Dimitri Tiomkin, from 'Duel In The Sun' (1947)
The Western World of Dimitri Tiomkin. Unicorn-Kanchana Digital DKP 9002 (1980).

'Sally Gooden', played by Fiddlin' Eck Robertson (rec. 1922)
Eck Robertson, Old-Time Texas Fiddler, County CO-3515-CD (1998)

The Carolina Chocolate Drops (1) on The Pace Report

The Carolina Chocolate Drops (2) on Michigan PBS WFUM TV-28

Old Dan Tucker by Dan Emmett (1843) perf. by Lew Dite (LDsongscreen)

'Roll Jordan Roll' (US Trad.), sung by Mahalia Jackson.
Mahalia Jackson - Gospels, Spirituals & Hymns. Columbia, Legacy C2K 47083 (1991)

'Pike County Breakdown' perf. by Flatt & Scruggs; Flat & Scruggs - The Original Sound. Mercury SR60773 (1963)

'Hebridean Home Worship' ; Murdina MacDonald [v]; Thorkild Knudsen [rec]
Musique celtique, Îles Hébrides, Ocora OCR 45 (c 1969); See alternative recordings of this style.

Amazing Grace (lined-out version); unid. Folkways recording, 1960s. See alternative recording

Say It Loud - I'm Black And I'm Proud; by James Brown. Polydor 421403 (1968)

'Jesus Is On The Mainline', perf. by Ry Cooder and others;Show Time. Reprise BS 3059 (1977)

'Superstition' by Stevie Wonder;Talking Back. Tamla Motown 1C 062-93880 (1972)

Burning Hell by John Lee Hooker; as sung by Tom Jones on Live on Letterman, 2010-09-22 (taken down by YouTube)

'Greenback Dollar', sung by Woody Guthrie; Library Of Congress Recordings, Rounder 104110421043 (1988)

'Let The Good Times Roll' by Buck Owens; Buck Owens and his Buckaroos. EMI 22-1 E 048-50716 (1972)

'Van Diemen's Land' (Eng. Trad.), perf. by the Albion Country Band.No Roses. Mooncrest Crest 11 (1971)

Henry Purcell: ''Twas within a furlong' from The Mock Marriage

Henry Purcell: Chacony in G Minor played by The Purcell Quartet

Rule Britannia by Thomas Arne (1740)

George F Handel: Musette (larghetto) from Concerto Grosso n°6 in G minor, op.6 (1739)

George F Handel: ' Let Us Take The Road' from The Beggar's Opera; (orignally from opera Rinaldo)

'God Save The Queen'. Nationalhymnen aus 29 Nationen; Laserlight Digital 15 155 (1986)

Drink To Me Only With Thine Eyes (Eng. Trad.); Elizabeth Schwarzkopf [v], Gerald Moore [pf]

Billy Bragg on Bank Bonuses. GMTV on 26 Jan 2010 (was YouTube 17xRTcqhHqU)

Rough Sleepers in London. Press TV London, 2009-12-15

Regent Street Crowd by 'potfok' (2007-07-07)

Snap and Time Line Montage (end credits); by Philip Tagg (2011)



'Migration and Human Capital: Self-Selection of Indentured Servants to the Americas'

'Are poor rural whites a cultural minority?' Legal Ruralism blog 2011-04-05

BRIGHTWELL, Eric: The roots of jazz -- cakewalk -- Amoeba's Jazz Week

BURNEY, Charles: A General History of Music (1789)
London: Harcourt, Brace & Co. Universal Digital Library

CLARKE, Henry Leland: 'John Blow - A Tercentenary Survey'
Musical Quarterly Vol: 35 Issue: 3 ISSN: 0027-4631 Date: 07/1949 Pages: 412 - 420

FERGUSON, Howard: 'Purcell's Harpsichord Music'. Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, 91/1 (1964,): 1, ff.

HAMM, Charles: Yesterdays. Popular Song in America. 1979, New York: W W Norton

KUBIK, Gerhard: 'Présence de la musique africaine dans le jazz'. Musiques du XXe siècle (Musiques, vol. 1); Nattiez, Jean-Jacques (ed). 2003, Paris: Actes Sud/Cité de la musique: 1203-1238.

LING, Jan: En rundresa med Charles Burney. 1700-talets musikmiljöer. 2004, Stockholm: Atlantis.

MERWE, Peter van der: Origins of the Popular Style. 1989, Oxford University Press.

Music and Dance of Ghana (Music Dept., University of North Carolina at Wilmington) (was

OLIVER, Paul: Savannah Syncopators: African Retentions in the Blues. 1970, London: November Books.

OLIVER, Paul: The Story of the Blues. 1972, London: Penguin.

OLIVER, Paul: Songsters and Saints. Vocal Traditions on Race Records. 1984, Cambridge University Press.

SOUDEN, David : 'Rogues, Whores and Vagabonds: Indentured Servants to North America in the seventeenth century'.
Social History, 3/1 (Jan.uary 1978)

Uncle Dave And Uncle Ira: Mighty Preachers Of The Gospel. Two Old Warriors Of The Cross Were Familiar To Every Community In The Mountains Of Eastern Kentucky
The Kentucky Explorer, P. O. Box 227, Jackson, KY 41339.

VUGT, William E Van: 'Running from Ruin? the emigration of British farmers in the wake of the repeal of the Corn Laws (covers period 1846-1853)'
Economic History Review, 2nd ser. XLI, 3 (1988): 411-428

WEBER, William: The Rise of Musical Classics in Eighteenth-Century England: A Study in Canon, Ritual and Ideology (Oxford, 1992)

WELLS, Paul: 'Fiddling as an avenue of black-white musical interchange: African-American music of Appalachia'. Black Music Research Journal, 23/1-2: 135-147 (2003).

WICKS, Sammie Ann: 'A belated salute to the "old way" of "snaking" the voice on its (ca) 345th birthday'. Popular Music, 8/1. 1989, Cambridge University Press: 59-96.

TopBackground and/or further listening and/or viewing

AFRO CELT SOUND SYSTEM : 'Beautiful Rain'.
Anatomic. Real World Records 0094633180123 (2005)

Amazing Grace; Old Regular Baptist Association, Indian Bottom (KY)

Appalachian Journey. Film by Alan Lomax. Copyright: 1991, Association for Cultural Equity

BALDWIN, Stephen: Stephen Baldwin – English village fiddler (1954). Leader LED 2068 (1976)

The Banjo in Black and White (Philip Tagg)

Beggar's Opera (dir. Peter Brook). Warner, 1953.

BLOW, John: Lovely Selina; John Mark Ainsley (v)

BLOW, John: Ah, heaven! What is't I hear?; Alfred & Mark Deller (v)

BLOW, John: Chaconne (1687); perf on harpsichord by Timothy Roberts

Cakewalk Dance Clips was YouTube 7sDnVIeSn_k

Cape Breton Strathspey and Reels; Uploaded by kitaro1007 on 29 Oct 2007

CASH, Johnny: 'Drink To Me Only'; Songs Of Our Soil (2002)

Comin' Round The Mountain (Mickey's Fun Songs); tTaken from Campout At Walt Disney World.

COODER, Ry - Down In Mississippi

Dominants and Dominance (Philip Tagg)

Down By the Riverside (US Trad.) perf. Sister Rosetta Thorpe; removed from YouTube

FOSTER, Stephen: Old Folks At Home; Rosa Ponselle (v)

FOSTER, Stephen: Old Black Joe; Rujulus (Toronto) on 3-string ukulele.

FOSTER, Stephen: Old Black Joe; Paul Robeson (v)

FOSTER, Stephen: Oh Susanna; Raymond Crooke (v)

BOYCE, William: Heart of Oak

BOYCE, William: Heart of Oak; David Keith Jones (v)

I Ride An Ol' Paint (US Trad.); via John A Lomax "The Ballad Hunter" (PBS); Doug Green (v)

Loch Lomond; perf. The Corries

Rogers & Hammerstein: Oklahoma! Members Of The Original New York Production. Decca DL 8000 (1965)

Saltire Strathspey; New Kilpatrick Country Dance Club Demonstration Team

Salm vol 1 - Gaelic Psalms From the Hebrides of Scotland (CD)
Recorded live in Back Free Church, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.

The Skye Boat Song; Andreas (Germany) TheHighlandPiper



From Alison Eales 2011-05-13
My responses are in this colour

A fascinating video, which I really should have known better than to watch at 2am. :)

In a previous life I studied linguistics and am obsessed with the relationships between music and words. I'm going to have to make multiple comments here so bear with me.

1: As I understand it, we can get an idea of Old English prosody from its morphology - lots of short words with weakly-stressed inflections suggest a DUM-da DUM-da rhythm (like modern Icelandic).  English kept that basic metre even after it lost its inflections - think 'Sumer is icumen in'. I don't know enough about celtic prosody to know whether it was very different from Old English, but I doubt its influence was profound. After all, 'wealas' is used to mean 'slaves' as well as 'foreigners'.

1a. Stressing a syllable or note is just as much a matter of dynamic accent (volume, attack) as it is of length (duration), i.e. It can't be expressed in terms of DUM and DA. You need musical notation or something else showing the relative duration and accentuation pattern in question.

1b. Wealas may mean slaves as well as foreigners, but slave- or ex-slave populations can influence a hegemonic language as much as any other group.Check out Brazilian Portuguese (você, etc.) and vernacular speech habits in the USA (cool, bad, wicked, jazz, rag, rocking and rolling, boogie, hit it, etc.).

2: I wonder whether the snap in English has more to do with double letters? I can imagine that OE words like 'þonne' and 'middangeard' might have been said with a snap. Perhaps 'lytlan' (c1000) had a DUM-da rhythm, while 'luttel' (c1290) was closer to the snappy present-day 'little'. Or might it have something to do with loss of final -e in Middle English period and the effect that had on vowel lengths?

2. In modern Swedish and Norwegian double letters are the scribal sign of the relevant consonant lasting longer than if it was single. When the consonant isn't a fricative or liquid there is a hiatus in speech equivalent to the duration of at least one consonant. In this way each syllable in klocka (Swedish) and klokke (Norwegian) (=clock, time) occupies in toto the same amount of time as kloka and kloke respectively (=wise (adj.) in def. and pl. forms). This means that double consonants don't necessarily represent change in the lengths of syllables (notes); of vowels, yes, in some cases; but of syllables, not necessarily.

3: I love that version of Van Diemen's Land. It's interesting that the word 'Warwick' is snapped in the first verse and not in the second - so while the musical snap might be derived from spoken language, by this point the words are subject to the demands of the music.

3. This didn't surprise me because a melody's rhythmic profile can often override the speech rhythm f the words set to it.

It also occurs to me that snap and twang are very banjo (banjar?)- friendly sounds (hammering on, bending strings), so there's perhaps an onomatopoeic relationship between the instrument and the voice of its player. Absolutely, but if I'd started dealing with that too I'd've never finished the video.